Posts Tagged ‘1960s’

equal-pay-nowWhen Peggy Olson closed the door to have her sit-down with Don Draper, her boss, you didn’t have to be a student of history to know it was going to end badly. When women have conversations like this with their bosses about equal pay for equal work, it almost always ends badly.

Peggy’s consciousness-raising moment probably came after her liquid lunch with Duck Phillips. Trying to lure her over to Grey Advertising, he nearly drowns her in a sea of flattery. He says he admires her “focused ambition. He calls her a “free wheeling career gal with great ideas.” He promises her velvet pillows, riches and awards. But most importantly, he tells her that as a single woman with no mortgage or family responsibilities, this is her time. “Strike while the iron is hot,” he says.

She was also encouraged by the Equal Pay Act of 1963 which passed in June. The relevant portion of the Equal Pay Act of 1963 that Peggy read about in the paper said sex discrimination would be prohibited in the workplace. Employers could no longer discriminate on the basis of sex by paying female employees at a rate less than what is paid to employees of the opposite sex who perform the same work using the same skills under the same conditions.

However, there are also some pretty big loopholes contained in the act. Exceptions are made for salaries paid in accordance with 1) a seniority system, 2) a merit system 3) a system which measures earnings by quality or quality of production or 4) a differential based on any factor other than sex…”

But it still sounds pretty good to Peggy. Now she has to get paid the same as the pipe-smoking poseur Princeton grad Paul Kinsey. It’s the law! They have the same job, and as she accurately pointed out, she does it better. Kinsey trashed talked the Madison Square Garden people in a pitch meeting. Peggy landed the Popsicle account all by herself. She does pro bono work for her church. She had to share an office with a Xerox machine. She barely makes more than her secretary. So what the hell Don, give the girl a raise.

Sadly, it’s more complicated than that. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 was the first step in a long march to equal pay for equal work that continues into the millennium. ” Much remains to be done to achieve full equality of economic opportunity,” President Kennedy said in his remarks upon the signing of the bill. “[In 1960] the average woman worker earns only 60 percent of the average wage for men–this legislation is a significant step forward.” (In 2007, women made about 72 cents for every dollar a man earned.)

Even if Sterling Cooper wasn’t pinching pennies by counting paper clips and redlining expense reports, Don would have had several ready and legal excuses to keep Peggy’s salary right where it is. Don could tell her she doesn’t have the seniority or the numbers to merit a raise and there wouldn’t be much Peggy could have done about it. The law as it was written left a lot of room for a lot of excuses employers could (and did) use to rationalize paying women less than men. In the following four decades, a dozen lawsuits, additional legislation and a very vocal women’s movement will be needed to advance the concept of equal pay for equal work.

Social factors also contribute to the equal pay problem. Peggy works for an old school, old boys advertising agency. No turtlenecks or corned beef sandwiches here. Her boss stormed out of a meeting with a major New York department store because he wasn’t going to let a woman talk back to him. Her boss’ boss Roger Sterling throws parties at his country club where he performs in blackface. One of the account service managers was practically kicked to the curb for suggesting a client target black consumers. And let’s not forget the tragic Ann-Margret diet soda spot. Peggy knew it was a disaster from Day One and she said so only to be shot down by Don who tells her he understands women better than she does.

In 1964 Congress would pass the Civil Rights Act which includes Title VII which prohibits discrimination by covered employers on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin. Eventually, it would get harder and harder, but still not impossible for employers to pay their female employees less. Peggy’s time has yet to come.


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I can totally see Trudy Campbell at Woodstock.

At Roger Sterling’s Kentucky Derby soiree in the third episode of “Mad Men” Mrs. Pete Campbell  stole the show with her hat, her manners and her fantastic Roaring Twenties dance moves. The butter churning steps were just to die for.  (Alison Brie, who plays Trudy, said the couple has been practicing for about a month.)

Their joie de vivre was charming.  (I immediately wanted to find an Arthur Murray Dance Studio and sign up for dance lessons.) Tea dancing was a part of the core curriculum for society kids like Pete and Trudy, but still, can’t you just see them practicing at home?

The character of Trudy may have started life as a shrill, spoiled Upper East Side Princess (and actually, what’s not to love about that? It works for  our beloved Gossip Girl’s Blair Waldorf.) but she’s evolved a little bit into a charming, stylish and confident corporate wife.

Of all the women on “Mad Men,” Trudy is the only one who seems genuinely happy with her husband and her life. (She is having problems getting pregnant, but this is a TV drama and nobody can have everything.)

While Peggy, Joan and Betty are struggling to fit into pre-conceived 1960’s gender roles, Trudy is already in charge of her destiny. She did not save herself for marriage.  She pushes Pete to buy their chic Upper East Side apartment. She’s the one with the power to hit up an old beau and persuade him to publish Pete’s short story. She’s quick to adopt the latest styles and trends and has innate understanding of what it takes to be a corporate wife.  She has a thing for hats. (It’s a mystery why AMC doesn’t give us more pix from Trudy’s amazing gallery of hats. They are simply wonderful.)

It’s easy to see Trudy in 1967 in a cute little mini-skirt with white go-go boots and a Marlo Thomas “That Girl” flip hairstyle, making Pete take her to see the Beatles at Shea Stadium or farther a long in the 1970 campaigning for the Equal Rights Amendment. Trudy’s wealth and privilege gives her the freedom to have fun and take charge and if Pete doesn’t like it, well he’ll just have to get over it — and that’s just another thing that makes us love Trudy even more.

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